Vegetius Renatus: Military Machines, 1553
War has always been a powerful spur to the creation of machines and robotics. This 1853 book of Military Machines included reprints or translations of a number of historical treatises on military technology. Its most famous section is a work written in the third century by an ancient Roman imperial officer named Flavius Vegetius Renatus. But modern eyes are captured by the woodcut illustrations of realistic and fantastical military machines. Realistic devices include a portable ladder. Fantastical technology includes what appears to be a robot-style hybrid of a tank and a human being.